Developing a Field Artillery System


Background Reading



• Birkhimer, William E. (1884). Organization-Field Artillery Since 1821. Historical Sketch of the Organization, Administration, Materiel and Tactics of the Artillery, United States Army, (pp. 54-75). Washington DC: James J. Chapman.


• Dastrup, Boyd L. (1992). Field Artillery and the New Nation: 1784-1815 & Developing a Field Artillery System: 1815-1861. King of Battle: A Branch History of the U.S. Army's Field Artillery (pp. 35-81). Virginia: United States Army Training and Doctrine Command.


• Henry, W.S. (1847). Campaign Sketches of the War with Mexico. NY: Harper & Brothers.


• Mckenney, Janice E. (2007). Reorganizing the Arm. The Organizational History of Field Artillery 1775-2003, (pp. 17-46). Washington DC: Center of Military History.



The War of 1812



• Cruikshank, Ernest A. & Lundy's Lane Historical Society. (1891). The Battle of Lundy's Lane: An Address Delivered Before the Lundy's Lane Historical Society, October 16, 1888. Welland: The Tribune Office.


Online Resources


American Field Artillery in the War of 1812 []


The Battle of Lundy's Lane []


British Artillery []


History of the War of 1812 []


A Military History of the War of 1812 []


Military Resources: War of 1812 []


U.S. Army Center of Military History []


The War of 1812 []




• Trussell, John B.B. Jr. (1949). Thunder by the River. Field Artillery Journal, 39, 4, 173-175.





Online Sources


The Evolution of Artillery []


Guns of Gribeauval System []





• Graves, Donald E. War of 1812. (1992). Field Artillery of the War of 1812: Equipment, Organization, Tactics and Effectiveness. Arms Collecting, 30, No. 2, 39-48.


• Smith, Digby, trans. (2010). Gribeauval's Objection Toward Regimental Artillery. Smoothbore Ordnance Journal, 2, (05).


• Summerfield, Stephen, Dr. (2010). Gribeauval and French Ordnance. Smoothbore Ordnance Journal, 2, (04).


• Summerfield, Stephen, Dr. (2010). Gribeauval in Austrian Service (1758-62). Smoothbore Ordnance Journal, 2, (03).


• Summerfield, Stephen, Dr. (2010). Gribeauval in France before the Seven Years War (1715-56). Smoothbore Ordnance Journal, 2, (02).


• Summerfield, Stephen, Dr. (2010). Gribeauval on Austrian Ordnance. Smoothbore Ordnance Journal, 2, (06).


• Summerfield, Stephen, Dr. (2010). Gribeauval's Early Work. Smoothbore Ordnance Journal, 2, (01).




Samuel Ringgold



• Wynne, James. (1847). Memoir of Major Samuel Ringgold, United States Army: (1847). Baltimore: John Murphy.


Online Resources


Battery C Flag (Mexican War) []


Major Samuel Ringgold []




• COL (Ret) Stegmaier, Robert M. (1979). Samuel Ringgold and the "flying batteries". Field Artillery Journal, 47, No.4, 57-59.


• Downey, Fairfax. (1956). The Flying Batteries: Part 1. Army, 66-68.


• Downey, Fairfax. (1957). The Flying Batteries: Part 2. Army, 60-64.



William Congreve/Rockets

Online Resources


History of the Rocket 1804 to 1815 []


William Congreve[]


William Congreve's Rational Rockets []




• Brown, Dorris A. (1944). The Army's First Rocket Troops. Our Army, 11.


Print Sources


• Winter, Frank H. (1990). The First Golden Age of Rocketry. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution.

TL781 .W56 1990








"During the Mexican-American War (1846-1848), the U.S. found light-horse artillery was even capable of offensive action independent of other arms. "Flying batteries" fought from exposed forward positions, sometimes within range of enemy musket fire. Employing grape and canister in rapid fire and using quick displacement, artillery was able to break up attacks, protect flanks or conduct an offensive rush. As a result, artillery tactics were recognized in both theory and practice as an important element in any battle plan." --[James Carafano, "A Guide, Readings for Studying History of the Field Artillery"]




Bauer, K. Jack. (1974). The Mexican War, 1846-1848.  NY:  Macmillan.


Call Number: E404 .B37

Dillon, Lester Reed. (1975).  American Artillery in the Mexican War, 1846-1847. TX: Presidial Press.


Call Number: E404 .D41

Dillon, Lester Reed. (1968). United States Artillery in Taylor’s Army of Occupation 1845-1847.


Call Number: E404 .D4

Dufour, Charles L. (1968). The Mexican War: A Compact History, 1846-1848.  NY:  Hawthorn Books.


Call Number: E404 .D8

Dugard, Martin. (2008). The Training Ground:  Grant, Lee, Sherman and Davis in the Mexican War, 1846-1848.  NY:  Little, Brown and Company.


Call Number: E403 .D84 2008

Eisenhower, John S. D. (1989). So Far from God: The U.S. War with Mexico, 1846-1848. NY:  Random House.


Call Number: E405 .E37 1989

Johnson, Timothy D. (2007).  A Gallant Little Army: The Mexico City Campaign.  KS:  University Press of Kansas.


Call Number: E405.6 .J64 2007

McCaffrey, James M. (1992).  Army of Manifest Destiny:  The American Soldier in the Mexican War.  NY:  NYU.


Call Number: E409.2 .M35 1992

Smith, Justin Harvey. (1919).The War with Mexico. NY: The Macmillan Company.


Call Number: E404 .S66 V.1

Winders, Richard Bruce. (1997). Mr. Polk’s Army: The American Military Experience in the Mexican War. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.


Call Number: E409.2 .W56 1997




The Guns of Bragg


General Zachary Taylor on Buena Vista's field


Watched the Mexicans come on, As "Charge!" the bugles pealed.


Where on the ridge a battery Unlimbered, took its stand,


Young Braxton Bragg, a Southerner, Heard Old Zach's sharp command.


"A little more grape. Captain Bragg,"- That's what the textbooks tell-


But what he roared was. "Double-shot Your guns and give 'em hell!"


Out blasted grape and cannister, Sweeping the charge away.


On stormed the blue-clad battle line To win that hard-fought fray.


Along the Rio Grande, Enmity we forget.


The U.S.A. and Mexico Face firm a common threat.


Healed is the rift between the Blue And the Gray Bragg later wore.


His name is on a far-flung fort The Stars and Stripes waves o'er.


There pack artillery, howitzers, Mortars, and field guns mass,


Ready to shell a foe froms woods or hold a mountain pass.


In time of need artillerymen, Like Bragg will hearken well


To a brave echo: "Double-shot Your guns and give 'em hell!"


---Fairfax Downey



The Mexican-American War



• Anderson, Robert & Lawton, Eba Anderson. (1911). An Artillery Officer in the Mexican War, 1846-7. NY: G.P. Putnam's Sons.


• Center of Military History. (2006). The Occupation of Mexico: May 1846-July 1848. Washington DC: Center of Military History.


• Department of War. (1833). A System of Exercise and Instruction of Field-Artillery: Including Manœuvres for Light or Horse-Artillery. Boston: Hilliard, Gray and Company.


• Myers, William Starr,ed. (1917). The Mexican War Diary of George B. McClellan. NJ: Princeton University Press.


• Peterson, Charles J. (1858). The Military Heroes of the War with Mexico. Philadelphia: J.A.S. B. Smith & Co.


• Ripley, R.S. (1849). The War with Mexico (1849): Volume I. NY: Harper & Brothers, Publishers.


• Ripley, R.S. (1849). The War with Mexico (1849): Volume II. NY: Harper & Brothers, Publishers.


• United States Army. (1841). Ordnance Manual for the use of the Officers of the United States Army. Washington DC: J and G.S. Gideon Printers.


• Wilcox, Cadmus M. (1892). History of the Mexican War (1892). Washinton DC: The Church News Publishing Company.


Online Resources


Battlefield Tactics []


The Mexican American War []


U.S. Army Campaigns: Mexican War []


The U.S.-Mexican War []


U.S. Mexican War-Animation []




• American Heritage Department. (1979). Our First Foreign War. American Heritage Magazine, 17, Issue 4.


• Cummings, Edward B. (Lt. Col). (2011). No Finer Army: The Regular Army in the Mexican War, 1846-1848. The Army Historical Foundation.


• Downey, Fairfax. (1955). Tragic Story of the San Patricio Battlion. American Heritage Magazine, 6, Issue 4.


• Ginsburgh, A.R. (1937). O'Brien's Bulldogs. Field Artillery Journal, 27, 3, 182-186.


• Smith, R.P., Jr. (1998). Staying on the Cutting Edge: Military Professionalism and the Mexican War. Field Artillery Journal.


• Stegmaier, Robert M. (1984). Through the Smoke of Distant Fires. Field Artillery Journal, 52, 4, 35-41.


• Trussell, John B.B. Jr. (1949). Guns Before Chapultepec. Field Artillery Journal, 39, 3, 108-110.


• Waugh, John C. (1996). Mexican War: The Proving Ground for Future American Civil War Generals. Civil War Times.




• Ducan, James. (1908). The Artillery in the Mexican War. Journal of the United States Artillery, Volume 29, (pp.313-316). Fort Sill: Artillery School Press.


• Johnson, Jameson Riley. (1998). The Birth of Modern Artillery in the 1846-48 War Against Mexico. The Artilleryman Magazine, 20, No.1.


• Kearful, Jerome. (1950). Doniphan's Artillery. Field Artillery Journal, 40, No. 2.


• Reilly, James M. (1903). An Artilleryman's Story in the War with Mexico. Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 438-446.


• Van Deusen, George W. (1895). Our Artillery in the Mexican War. Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 87-96.


Student Papers


• Arnold, A.V. (1928). A Tactical Study of Field Artillery in the Mexican War. Fort Sill: U.S. Field Artillery School.


• Hensey, Walter R. (1927). The Firing Battery, Mexican War 1845-1848. Fort Sill: U.S. Field Artillery School.



Palo Alto

Online Resources


Guns Along the Rio Grande: Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma []


Battle of Palo Alto []


Printed Sources


• Heller, Charles E. (Ed.) & Stofft, Willam A. (Ed.)(1986). The Battles on the Rio Grande: Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, 8-9 May 1846. America's First Battles 1776-1965, pp. 81-108. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press.

E181 .A46 1986




Online Resources


Gateway South: The Campaign for Monterrey []




Buena Vista



• Carney, Stephen A. (2008). Desperate Stand: The Battle of Buena Vista.Washington DC: Center of Military History.


Online Resources


Battle of Buena Vista []




• Smith, Robert Benjamin. (1997). Mexican-American War: Battle of Buena Vista. Military History Magazine.


• Stegmaier, Robert A. (1979). Bragg-Valiant Artilleryman. Field Artillery Journal, 47, 6, 55-57.






Scott Winfield



• Wright, Marcus J. (1894). Great Commanders: General Scott, (pp.149-289). NY: Appleton and Company.


Online Sources


Winfield Scott (1786-1866) []




• Stegmaier, Robert M. (1979). Scott: His "Gentlemen"...His "Flying Batteries". West Point Assembly.


• Swan III, Guy C. (1983). Scott's Engineers. Military Review, 63, No. 3, 61-69.


Print Sources


• Eisenhower, John S.D. (1999). Agent of Destiny: The Life and Times of General Winfield Scott. OK: University of Oklahoma.

E403.1 .S4 E5 1999


• Johnson, Timothy D. (1998). Winfield Scott: The Quest for Military Glory / Edition 1. Kansas: University Press of Kansas.

E403.1 .S4J65 1998



Red Legs


The "red leg" nickname for field artillerymen had its beginning during the
Mexican War when "red-legged" artillerymen were still used as infantrymen when needed. The Army blue uniform for artillerymen had a 2-inch red stripe on the trousers and horse artillerymen wore red canvas leggings, hence the nickname "red legs." --Right of the Line






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